Upper Respiratory Infections: most commonly based on bacterial infections, but can also be viral or nutritionally. Predominantly affects Mexican Red-Headed Amazons, Lilac-Crowned and Red-lored Amazons)
Dietary Deficiencies: Due to their preference of seeds as primary food source. Vitamin A deficiencies in particular are common and exemplify themselves by oral abscesses, sub-mandibular swelling or by a blunting of the choanal papilla.
Vitamin A Deficiency: Vitamin A promotes appetite, digestion, and also increases resistance to infection and to some parasites.
Lead Poisoning exemplifying itself by red urine (hematuria) and acute depression.
Cloacal Papillomas. Affected birds may be straining to defecate or have blood in the stool. Owners may see a reddish growth protruding from the vent. This condition is suspected to be transmissible and affected parrots should not be included in a breeding program.
Cancer - particularly liver cancer -- common in older amazons.
Tumors: Tumors can be benign or malignant (cancerous) and can involve any organ or system. Some species of birds tend to develop benign fatty tumors called "Lipomas."
Lipomas are commonly seen in overweight Amazon Parrot, Rose-breasted Cockatoos and Budgies. It seems that older budgies are more prone to tumors of the ovary, testicle or kidney, which may eventually put pressure on the sciatic nerve on the affected side, resulting in lameness of the foot or leg.Fibromas are tumors found on the wing and they may need to be surgically removed. In some instances, amputation of the wing may be necessary.
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