The Southern Caracara (Caracara plancus), also known as the Southern Crested Caracara, is a bird of prey in the family Falconidae.
It formerly included the Crested Caracara (C. cheriway) of southern USA, Central America and northern South America, and the extinct Guadalupe Caracara (C. lutosus) as subspecies. As presently defined, the Southern Caracara is restricted to central and southern South America. As its relatives, it was formerly placed in the genus Polyborus.
It has a total length of 50-65 cm (20-26 in) and a wing-span of c. 120 cm (47 in). Individuals from the colder southern part of its range average larger than those from tropical regions.
The cap, belly, thights, most of the wings and tail-tip are dark brownish, the auriculars (feathers covering the ears), throat and nape (back of the neck) are whitish-buff, and the chest, neck, mantle, back, uppertail-coverts, crissum and basal part of the tail are whitish-buff barred dark brownish. In flight, the outer primaries (= longest wing feathers) show a large conspicious whitish-buff patch ('window'), as in several other species of caracaras. The legs are yellow and the bare facial skin and cere are deep yellow to reddish-orange.
Juveniles resemble adults, but are paler, with streaking on the chest, neck and back, grey legs, and whitish, later pinkish-purple, facial skin and cere.
It can be separated from the similar Crested Caracara by its more extensive barring to the chest, brownish and often lightly mottled/barred scapulars (shoulder feathers) (all blackish in Crested), and pale lower back with dark barring (uniform blackish in Crested). Individuals showing intermediate features are known from the small area of contact in north-central Brazil, but intergradation between the two species is generally limited.
A bold, opportunistic raptor, often seen walking around on the ground looking for food. Mainly feeds on carcasses of dead animals, but will steal food from other raptors, raid bird nests, and take live prey if the possible arrives (mostly insects or other small prey, but at least up to the size of a Snowy Egret). It is dominant over the Black Vulture and the Turkey Vulture at carcasses. It is typically solitary, but several individuals may gather at a large food-source (e.g. dumps). Breeding takes place in the Austral spring/summer in the southern part of its range, but timing is less strict in warmer regions. The nest is a large open structure, typically placed on the top of a tree or palm, but sometimes on the ground. Average is two eggs.
Range and habitat
The Southern Caracara occurs from Tierra del Fuego in southernmost South America north to the Amazon River region and southern Peru. An isolated population occurs on the Falkland Islands. It avoids the Andean highlands and dense humid forest, such as the Amazon rainforest, where largely restricted to relatively open sections along major rivers. Otherwise, it occurs in virtually any open or semi-open habitat and is often found near humans.
Throughout most of its range, it is common to very common. It is likely to benefit from the widespread deforestation in tropical South America. It is therefore considered to be of Least Concern by BirdLife International.
BirdLife International 2004. Caracara plancus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 8 December 2007.
Dove, C. and R. Banks. 1999. A Taxonomic study of Crested Caracaras (Falconidae). Wilson Bull. 111(3): 330-339. Available online (PDF)
Ferguson-Lees, J., D. Christie, P. Burton, K. Franklin and D. Mead (2001). Raptors of the World. Christopher Helm. ISBN 0713680261
Restall, R., C. Rodner, and M. Lentino (2006). Birds of Northern South America. Vol. 1 and 2. Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-7242-0 (vol. 1); ISBN 0-7136-7243-9 (vol. 2)
Schulenberg, T., D. Stotz, D. Lane, J. O'Neill, and T. Parker III (2007). Birds of Peru. Helm, London. ISBN 978-0-7136-8673-9
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