Tuesday, Jul 29, 2014

Foods & Plants That Can be Toxic For Birds

Bird Health Care ... Safe Foods

First Aid Instructions

In a life-and-death situation when every minute counts for an animal, you can call the ASPCA National Animal Poison Control Center for 24-hour emergency information at 888-4ANI-HELP (888-426-4435). Website: National Animal Poisoning Control Center.


Toxic: Toxic Household Products ... Toxic Carpeting ... Teflon Poisoning ... Dangerous Air Filtration Systems

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The below is not a complete list. It is recommended that you consult with a vet, if in doubt.

Please note that the items marked with an* are especially toxic to birds and can be fatal. Toxic foods are foods that can cause allergies and/or health problems in birds. Anything high in sugar or salt is inappropriate, as are fatty foods. More serious are things such as chocolate, which is toxic to many pets. Caffeinated or alcoholic beverages are also dangerous. I provided additional information as was available.

Acorns

Agave, Maguey, Bayonet, Agavaceae Toxic Principle: Sap from the leaves, Seeds, Calcium oxalate raphides, Acrid volatile oils, Mechanically injurious Clinical Signs: Oral mucosa irritation, Contact urticaria, Skin: Immediate burning, erythema, urticaria, and edema, Granuloma reaction from punctures by leaves

Alcohol

Almond Plants / Seeds / plant-pan allergen profilin can cause serious reaction in some birds: Generally all plants of the Prunus genus EXCEPT the pulp of the fruit contain amygdalin or related glycosides which are slowly hydrolyzed to hydrocyanic acid. Some allergic reactions to almond nuts have been observed.

Alocasia

Amaryllis: Clinical Signs: Can cause vomiting, diarrhea, depression, appetite loss, tremors, drooling and abdominal pain

Angel's Trumpet (some species), seeds, leaves

Apple Seeds (small quantities ok)

*Apricot (seeds, wood)

Arrowgrass

*Autumn Crocus

Asparagus Fern - Sprengeri Fern, Lace Fern - Toxic Principle: Non-toxic, Berries, Sapogenins, Foliage Clinical Signs: Dermatitis, Irritant, Cardiac, sedative, and diuretic effects

Autumn Crocus/Meadow - Saffron

*Avocado (any part of the plant -- including flesh, leaves, seeds, stem, skin)

Azaleas: Can cause weakness, upset stomach, drooling, heart failure, depression and possible coma

Baneberry
Bayonet


Beans: Broad, Castor, Glory, Fava, Horse, Mescal, Navy, Pregator, Scarlet Runner) - Large Beans: such as Anasazi, Black, Fava, Kidney, Lima, Navy, Pinto, and Soy - should never be fed raw. However, thoroughly cooked are safe and healthy.

Beargrass

*Begonia

Bird of Paradise

Bitter Almonds*

Bittersweet
Black-eyed Susan
Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)

*Bleeding Heart

Bluebonnet
Bloodrot
Box
Boxwood
Bracken fern
Buckeye
Buckthorn
Burning Bush
Buttercup (Ranunculus)

Caffeine

*Caladium
*Calla Lily

Canada Yew
Candelabra
Cactus

*Castor Beans: Common Name: Castor Bean, Castor, Castor Oil Plant, palma Christi, Wonder Tree, Higuerilla, Steadfast Toxic Principle: Leaves, Seeds, Ricin, Ricinin Clinical Signs: Decrease blood pressure, Hypothermia, Decrease in blood glucose, Increase in serum hepatic enzymes: AST, ALT, LDH, Increase in BUN, calcium, phosphorous, Upset Stomach, Vomitting, Abdominal Pain, Nausea, Diarrhea, Anorexia, Trembling, Weakness, Sudden Collapse, Seizures, Exercise intolerance, Ataxia, Slight Depression, Copious thick, ropy salivation, Thirsty

Catnip Common Name: Catmint, Catnip Toxic Principle: Volatile oil Clinical Signs: Odd behavior, Drowsiness, Disorientation

Ceriman
Cherry (seeds, wood)
Chinaberry

*Chinese Sacred or Heavenly Bamboo

Chocolate

*Choke Cherry (unripe berries)

Christmas Rose

Chrysanthemum: Results in vomiting, diarrhea, depression, drooling and appetite loss. Causes allergies in humans as it is a ragweed relative.

Clematis
Coriander
Coriaria
Cornflower
Corydalis
Crocus bulb
Croton (Codiaeum sp.)

Crown of Thorns aka Christ Plant, Christ Thorn, Crown of Thorns Toxic Principle: Miliamines, Terpenes, Diterpenes, Alkaloidal esters of diterpenoid ingenol, Stems: the juice, leaves, and thorns Clinical Signs: Eye irritation, Vomiting, Skin irritation, Diarrhea, Irritation to gastrointestinal tract

Curry Powder
Cyclamen bulb

Daffodil / Bulbs: Clinical Signs: Can cause severe gastrointestinal illness, convulsions, seizures, low blood pressure and tremors.

Daphne
Datura
Deadly Nightshade
Death Camas

*Delphinium, larkspur, monkshood

Dicentrea
Dieffenbachia

Dumb Cane aka Dumb Plant, Dumb Cane, Mother-in-law’s Tongue Plant Toxic Principle: Histamine poisoning, All parts: leaves, stems, sap, Proteolytic enzymes, Calcium oxalate crystals, Other toxins Clinical Signs: Swelling of throat, Impairment of speech, Excessive salivation, Pain and swelling of mouth, Skin rashes

Easter Lily

Eggplant: The leaves of the plant on which the eggplant fruit grows are poisonous, but the fruit itself is said to be safe. Some sources caution of overly ripe or under-ripe eggplant fruit.

Elderberry (unripe berries)
Elephant Ear

English Ivy

Fava Beans
Fig (Ficus)
Euonymus
Evergreen Ferns
Ficus

Fiddle-leaf Philodendron aka Tree Philodendron, Cut-leaf Philodenron Toxic Principle: Nephrotoxic, Entire Plant, Leaves, Oxalates, Calcium oxalate Clinical Signs: Dermatitis, Excessive salivation, Red and swollen oral cavity, Pain, swelling, irritation to throat, Irritation and burning of mouth, lips, and tongue

Holly: Commonly found during the Christmas season, can cause intense vomiting, diarrhea and depression.

Flax ?? (Controversial - This may be the case in large quantities - consult with your vet)

Four-o'clocks (Mirabilis)
Foxglove (Digitalis)

*Garlic (safe for birds in SMALL amounts)

Golden Glow
Gopher Purge
Hellebore
Hemlock
Henbane
Honeysuckle
Horsebeans
Horsebrush
Horse Chestnut
Hyacinth bulbs

*Hydrangea

Iris corms
Iris Ivy

*Jack-in-the-pulpit

Japanese Yew
Java Beans
Jessamine
Jerusalem Cherry

*Jimson weed

Jonquil
Jungle Trumpets

Kalanchoe aka Florist’s Kalanchoe, Kalanchoe, Palm Beach Belle Toxic Principle: Isoprene alkaloids, Cardiac glycosides, Cardiac bufadienolides, Bryotoxins, Non-toxic maybe - Clinical Signs: Labored respiration, Cardio-toxic effects, Excessive salivation, Digestive disturbance, Loss of interest in food and water

*Lantana

Larkspur
Laurel
Lily
Lily-of-the-Valley
Lily Spider
Lobelia (some species), all parts
Locoweed
Lupine species
Malanga
Marigold

*Marijuana or hemp (Cannibus)
*Milkweed

*Mistletoe Berries: A Christmas plant, ingestion can cause significant vomiting and diarrhea, difficulty breathing, collapse, erratic behavior, hallucinations and death.

Mock Orange
Monkshood

*Morning Glory

Mountain Laurel
Mushrooms
Narcissus, daffodil
Nettles
Nectarine (seeds, wood)
Nightshade

*Oak

Oleander aka Rosa Laurel Toxic Principle: Seeds, Vase water, Whole plant, Smoke from burning, Cardioactive glycosides Clinical Signs: may cause diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, slowing of heart-rate, abdormal heart beat patterns, heart failure and possible death.

*Onions (toxic to birds, small amount ok)

Peace Lilly

*Peach (seeds, wood)
*Pencil cactus plant

Peony
Periwinkle
Peyote Cactus

Philodendron aka Sweetheart Plant, Heart-leaf Philodendron, Parlor Ivy Toxic Principle: Nephrotoxic, Entire Plant, Leaves, Oxalates, Calcium oxalate Clinical Signs: Dermatitis, Excessive salivation, Red and swollen oral cavity, Pain, swelling, irritation to throat, Irritation and burning of mouth, lips, and tongue

Pimpernel
Plum (seeds, wood)
Poinciana

Poinsettia: Clinical Signs: Can cause irritation to the mouth and stomach and sometimes vomiting

Poison Ivy
Poison Oak
Pokeweed
Poppy
Potato (green seed balls, green tubers; plant, leaves and stem)
Precatory beans
Privet
Rhododendron

*Rhubarb: Rhubarb leaves are poisonous but the edible rhubarb stalks are safe.

*Rosary Pea

Rubber Plant

Schefflera aka Umbrella Tree, Starleaf, Australian Umbrella Tree Toxic Principle: Entire Plant, Saponins, Falcarinol, Calcium oxalate, Oxalic acid Clinical Signs: Dermatitis, Vomiting, Leukopenia, Loss of coordination, Irritation of mouth, lips, and tongue

Scotch Broom

*Shamrock (Oxalis sp.)

Skunk Cabbage
Snowdrops
Snow-on-the-Mountain
Spindle Tree, Euonymus (some species), leaves, fruit, bark
Spreading English Yew
Spurge (Euphorbia sp.)
Staggerweed
Starleaf
Star of Bethlehem

Sweet Pea - Lathyrus latifolius - L.: Although no records of toxicity have been found for this plant, the seed of some species in this genus contain a toxic amino acid that can cause a severe disease of the nervous system known as 'lathyrism' if they are eaten in large amounts (although small quantities are said to be nutritious). Great caution is advised. Ref. www.pfaf.org

Tansy Mustard
Tobacco
Tomatoes (leaves and stem)
Tuffroot

Tulip: Clinical Symptoms: Can cause intense vomiting, depression, diarrhea, drooling and appetite loss.

Virginia Creeper
Walnut hulls
Water Arum

Weeping Fig

Wild Call Wisteria
Wild Calla
Wisteria
Yellow Calla

*Yew

Yucca aka Spineless Yucca, Soapweed, Spanish Bayonet Toxic Principle: Spines, Furostanols, Leaves, Saponins [steroidal], Spirostanols – sarsasapogenin Clinical Signs: Vomiting, Bloat, Diarrhea, Nausea, Mechanical damage

Zamioculcas - an indoor plant. All parts of the plant are poisonous if ingested.


Related Resources: Indiana Toxic Plants ... Veterinary Medicine Library (Alphabetic with Photos)



Unsafe Plants / Fruits and Trees

Below is a list of indoor and outdoor plants and trees which are hazardous to birds. It has been gathered from various sources and is not complete.

Below is a listing of unsafe plants, fruits and trees.

Agave, Maguey, Bayonet, Agavaceae Toxic Principle: Sap from the leaves, Seeds, Calcium oxalate raphides, Acrid volatile oils, Mechanically injurious Clinical Signs: Oral mucosa irritation, Contact urticaria, Skin: Immediate burning, erythema, urticaria, and edema, Granuloma reaction from punctures by leaves

Alacia

Amaryllis: Clinical Signs: Can cause vomiting, diarrhea, depression, appetite loss, tremors, drooling and abdominal pain

American Yew
Apricot

Asparagus Fern - Sprengeri Fern, Lace Fern - Toxic Principle: Non-toxic, Berries, Sapogenins, Foliage Clinical Signs: Dermatitis, Irritant, Cardiac, sedative, and diuretic effects

Autumn Crocus/Meadow - Saffron
Avocado

Azaleas: Can cause weakness, upset stomach, drooling, heart failure, depression and possible coma

Balsam Pear - seeds, outer rind of fruit
Baneberry - berries, root
Beans - all types if uncooked
Birch
Bird of Paradise - seeds
Bittersweet Nightshade
Black Locust - bark, sprouts, foliage
Bloodroot
Blue-green Algae - some forms toxic
Boxwood - leaves, stems
Bracken Fern
Broomcorn Grass
Buckthorn - fruit, bark
Buttercup - sap, bulbs
Caladium - leaves
Calla Lily - leaves
Candelabra Tree
Cardinal Flower-

*Castor Beans: Common Name: Castor Bean, Castor, Castor Oil Plant, palma Christi, Wonder Tree, Higuerilla, Steadfast Toxic Principle: Leaves, Seeds, Ricin, Ricinin Clinical Signs: Decrease blood pressure, Hypothermia, Decrease in blood glucose, Increase in serum hepatic enzymes: AST, ALT, LDH, Increase in BUN, calcium, phosphorous, Upset Stomach, Vomitting, Abdominal Pain, Nausea, Diarrhea, Anorexia, Trembling, Weakness, Sudden Collapse, Seizures, Exercise intolerance, Ataxia, Slight Depression, Copious thick, ropy salivation, Thirsty

Catnip Common Name: Catmint, Catnip Toxic Principle: Volatile oil Clinical Signs: Odd behavior, Drowsiness, Disorientation

Chalice Vine/Trumpet vine
Cherry Tree - bark, twigs, leaves, pits
Chinaberry Tree
Christmas Candle - sap
Clematis/Virginia Bower
Coral Plant - seeds
Coriander
Cowslip/Marsh Marigold

Crown of Thorns aka Christ Plant, Christ Thorn, Crown of Thorns Toxic Principle: Miliamines, Terpenes, Diterpenes, Alkaloidal esters of diterpenoid ingenol, Stems: the juice, leaves, and thorns Clinical Signs: Eye irritation, Vomiting, Skin irritation, Diarrhea, Irritation to gastrointestinal tract

Croton
Curry Powder

Daffodil / Bulbs: Clinical Signs: Can cause severe gastrointestinal illness, convulsions, seizures, low blood pressure and tremors.

Daphne - berries
Datura - berries
Deadly Amanita
Death Camas
Delphinium

Dumb Cane aka Dumb Plant, Dumb Cane, Mother-in-law’s Tongue PlantToxic Principle: Histamine poisoning, All parts: leaves, stems, sap, Proteolytic enzymes, Calcium oxalate crystals, Other toxins Clinical Signs: Swelling of throat, Impairment of speech, Excessive salivation, Pain and swelling of mouth, Skin rashes

Eggplant - fruit okay / leaves toxic

Elderberry
Elephants Ear/Taro - leaves, stem
English Ivy berries, leaves
English Yew
Euonymus/Spindle Tree
False Hellebore
False Henbane
Ficus (weeping)

Fiddle-leaf Philodendron aka Tree Philodendron, Cut-leaf Philodenron Toxic Principle: Nephrotoxic, Entire Plant, Leaves, Oxalates, Calcium oxalate Clinical Signs: Dermatitis, Excessive salivation, Red and swollen oral cavity, Pain, swelling, irritation to throat, Irritation and burning of mouth, lips, and tongue

Firethorn/Pyracantha
Fly Agaric Mushroom
Deadly Amanita
Four O'Clock
Foxglove - leaves, seeds
Golden Chain/Laburnum
Glory Bean
Ground Cherry
Hemlock - including the water the plant is in
Henbane - seeds

Holly: Commonly found during the Christmas season, can cause intense vomiting, diarrhea and depression.

Honey Locust
Honeysuckle
Horse Chestnut/Buckeye - nuts, twigs
Horsetail
Hyacinth - bulbs
Hydrangea - flower bud
Indian Licorice Bean
Indian Turnip/Jack-in-Pulpit
Iris/Blue Flag - bulbs
Ivy
Jack-in-the-Pulpit

Jade Plant, Jade Tree, Dollar Plant, leaves are toxic. Clinical Signs: Digestive upset, Nausea

Japanese Yew - needles, seeds
Jasmine
Java Bean - lima bean - uncooked
Jimsonweed/Thornapple
Jerusalem Cherry - berries
Johnson Grass
Juniper - needles, stems, berries

Kalanchoe aka Florist’s Kalanchoe, Kalanchoe, Palm Beach Belle Toxic Principle: Isoprene alkaloids, Cardiac glycosides, Cardiac bufadienolides, Bryotoxins, Non-toxic maybe Clinical Signs: Labored respiration, Cardio-toxic effects, Excessive salivation, Digestive disturbance, Loss of interest in food and water

Kentucky Coffee Tree
Lantana - immature berries
Larkspur
Laurel
Lily of the Valley - also water the plant is in
Lobelia
Locoweed
Lords and
Ladies/Cuckoopint
Lupines/Bluebonnet
Mandrake
Mango Tree - wood, leaves, rind - fruit safe
Marijuana/Hemp - leaves
Mayapple - fruit is safe
Mescal Beans - seeds

*Mistletoe Berries: A Christmas plant, ingestion can cause significant vomiting and diarrhea, difficulty breathing, collapse, erratic behavior, hallucinations and death.

Mock Orange - fruit
Monkshood/Aconite - leaves, root
Moonseed
Morning Glory
Mountain Laurel
Mushrooms - several varieties
Narcissus - bulbs
Nectarine
Nettles
Nightshade - all varieties
Nutmeg, nectar
Oak - acorns, foliage

Oleander aka Rosa Laurel Toxic Principle: Seeds, Vase water, Whole plant, Smoke from burning, Cardioactive glycosides Clinical Signs: may cause diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, slowing of heart-rate, abdormal heart beat patterns, heart failure and possible death.

Parsnip root contains three photoactive, mutagenic, and photocarcinogenic psoralens in a total concentration of about 40 parts per million. These chemicals are not destroyed by normal cooking procedures. Data about the toxicologic consequences of such exposure are not available.

Peach

Peanuts - raw: (Peanuts are often contaminated with aflatoxin, a fungal toxin. Aflatoxin is carcinogenic and causes liver damage in birds, other animals, and even humans. Roasting reduces aflatoxin but does not eliminate it entirely. North American peanut producers are currently working on eliminating contaminated peanuts from their products. Especially peanuts with dark spots on them should be considered suspect, but even those that look clean and perfect could possibly be contaminated.)

Pencil Tree
Periwinkle-

Philodendron aka Sweetheart Plant, Heart-leaf Philodendron, Parlor Ivy Toxic Principle: Nephrotoxic, Entire Plant, Leaves, Oxalates, Calcium oxalate Clinical Signs: Dermatitis, Excessive salivation, Red and swollen oral cavity, Pain, swelling, irritation to throat, Irritation and burning of mouth, lips, and tongue

Pigweed
Pikeweed
Pine needles - berries
Plum
Pointsetta - leaves, roots, immature
Poison Ivy - sap
Poison Oak - sap
Pomegranates (root / bark of the Pomegranate)
Pokeweed/Inkberry - leaf, root, young berries
Potato - eyes, new shoots

Pothos (Golden Ivy)

Privet
Prune
Rain Tree
Ranunculus/Buttercup
Red Cedar
Red Maple
Red Oak
Rhododendron
Rhubarb - leaves (editable stalks fine)
Rosary Peas/Indian
Licorice - seeds
Sandbox Tree
Scarlet Runner Beans

Schefflera aka Umbrella Tree, Starleaf, Australian Umbrella Tree Toxic Principle: Entire Plant, Saponins, Falcarinol, Calcium oxalate, Oxalic acid Clinical Signs: Dermatitis, Vomiting, Leukopenia, Loss of coordination, Irritation of mouth, lips, and tongue

Skunk Cabbage
Snowdrop
Snowflake
Snow on the Mountain / Ghostweed
Sorghum Grass
Sorrel
Sudan Grass
Sweet Pea - seeds, fruit
Tansy Ragwort
Tobacco - leaves
Vetch
Virginia Creeper - sap
Water Hemlock
Western Yew
Wisteria
Yam bean - roots, immature roots
Yello Jasmine
Yew (Amer,Engl,Japan) - needles, thistles

Yucca aka Spineless Yucca, Soapweed, Spanish Bayonet; Toxic Principle: Spines, Furostanols, Leaves, Saponins [steroidal], Spirostanols – sarsasapogenin; Clinical Signs: Vomiting, Bloat, Diarrhea, Nausea, Mechanical damage

Zamioculcas - an indoor plant. All parts of the plant are poisonous if ingested.


Related Resources: Indiana Plants: Veterinary Medicine Library (Alphabetic with Photos) ... www.library.okstate.edu/.../plants.htm



Unsafe Wood / Not Recommended for Perches


Below is a list of indoor and outdoor plants and trees which are considered hazardous to birds. It has been gathered from various sources and is not complete. Opinions differ, which made research rather confusing. If in doubt, discuss with your vet.

Apple (controversial - some say it's safe. Refer to above. Discuss with your vet)

Apricot

Arbutus

Ash (Mountain Ash is listed as safe on many lists)

Cherry (controversial - some say it's safe. Refer to above. Discuss with your vet)

Nectarine

Peach

Plum

Prune (Controversial again - sometimes listed as toxic, other times as safe - discuss with vet)

Red Cedar



Safe Woods


Species Research by Sibylle Johnson

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