The Blue-tailed Hummingbird (Amazilia cyanura) is a Central American hummingbird species that occurs naturally in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua. They inhabit subtropical or tropical dry forests, moist lowland forests, as well as heavily degraded former forest.
Subspecies and Distribution:
- Amazilia cyanura cyanura (Gould, 1859) – Nominate Race
- Range: Southern Honduras, eastern El Salvador and northwestern Nicaragua
- Amazilia cyanura guatemalae (Dearborn, 1907)
- Range: Southeastern Mexico (southeastern Chiapas) to southern Guatemala
- Amazilia cyanura impatiens (Bangs, 1906)
- Range: Northwestern and central Costa Rica
- Amazilia cyanura cyanura (Gould, 1859) – Nominate Race
The Blue-tailed Hummingbird averages 3.5 – 4 inches (9 – 10 cm in length (including its tail) and weighs about 0.14 oz or 4.0 g.
The bill is black, except the lower bill has red at the base. The upper plumage is mostly green. The rump has purple flashes. There is a cinnamon patch on base of the central flight feathers of the wing. The feathers that cover the tail are dark blue. They have white thigh tufts.
The male can be identified by his glittering green throat and under plumage.
The female’s plumage is generally paler and her throat is a less intense green; her abdomen is greyish-buff. The wing patch is either reduced or absent.
Juveniles look similar to females; but with a less bright plumage and the throat is pale green.
The Blue-tailed Hummingbird looks similar to the Berylline Hummingbird, but the latter has a cinnamon to coppery colored tail.
The Blue-tailed Hummingbirds can be differentiated from the similar Costa Rican Steely-vented Hummingbirds by the rufous coloration in the secondary feathers of their wings.
Alternate (Global) Names
Czech: Kolibrík stredoamerický, kolib?ík st?edoamerický … Danish: Blåhalet Amazilie … Dutch: Blauwstaartamazilia … German: Blauschwanzamazilie, Blauschwanz-Amazilie … Finnish: Sinitimanttikolibri … French: Ariane à queue bleue … Italian: Amazilia codablu, Colibrì codablu … Japanese: rurioemerarudohachidori … Spanish: Amazilia Coliazul, Amazilia de Cola Azul, Amazlia Coliazul, Colibrí Cola Azul, Colibri Coliazul … Norwegian: Blåhalekolibri … Polish: szmaragdzik modrosterny … Russian: ??????????? ???????? … Slovak: kolibrík modrochvostý … Swedish: Blåstjärtskolibri
Nesting / Breeding
Hummingbirds are solitary in all aspects of life other than breeding; and the male’s only involvement in the reproductive process is the actual mating with the female. They neither live nor migrate in flocks; and there is no pair bond for this species. Males court females by flying in a u-shaped pattern in front of them. He will separate from the female immediately after copulation. One male may mate with several females. In all likelihood, the female will also mate with several males. The males do not participate in choosing the nest location, building the nest or raising the chicks.
The female is responsible for building the cup-shaped nest out of plant fibers woven together and green moss on the outside for camouflage in a protected location in a shrub, bush or tree about 2 – 7 m (6.5 – 23 feet) above the ground. She lines the nest with soft plant fibers, animal hair and feather down, and strengthens the structure with spider webbing and other sticky material, giving it an elastic quality to allow it to stretch to double its size as the chicks grow and need more room. The nest is typically found on a low, thin horizontal branch.
The average clutch consists of two white eggs, which she incubates alone, while the male defends his territory and the flowers he feeds on. The young are born blind, immobile and without any down.
The female alone protects and feeds the chicks with regurgitated food (mostly partially-digested insects since nectar is an insufficient source of protein for the growing chicks). The female pushes the food down the chicks’ throats with her long bill directly into their stomachs.
As is the case with other hummingbird species, the chicks are brooded only the first week or two, and left alone even on cooler nights after about 12 days – probably due to the small nest size. The chicks leave the nest when they are about 20 days old.
Diet / Feeding
The Blue-tailed Hummingbirds primarily feed on nectar taken from a variety of brightly colored, scented small flowers of trees, herbs, shrubs and epiphytes. They favor flowers with the highest sugar content (often red-colored and tubular-shaped) and seek out, and aggressively protect, those areas containing flowers with high energy nectar.They use their long, extendible, straw-like tongues to retrieve the nectar while hovering with their tails cocked upward as they are licking at the nectar up to 13 times per second. Sometimes they may be seen hanging on the flower while feeding.
Many native and cultivated plants on whose flowers these birds feed heavily rely on them for pollination. The mostly tubular-shaped flowers actually exclude most bees and butterflies from feeding on them and, subsequently, from pollinating the plants.
In winter, when flowering plants may not be readily available, they may visit local hummingbird feeders for some sugar water, or drink out of bird baths or water fountains where they will either hover and sip water as it runs over the edge; or they will perch on the edge and drink – like all the other birds; however, they only remain still for a short moment.
They also take some small spiders and insects – important sources of protein particularly needed during the breeding season to ensure the proper development of their young. Insects are often caught in flight (hawking); snatched off leaves or branches, or are taken from spider webs. A nesting female can capture up to 2,000 insects a day.
Males establish feeding territories, where they aggressively chase away other males as well as large insects – such as bumblebees and hawk moths – that want to feed in their territory. They use aerial flights and intimidating displays to defend their territories.
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