The Giant Hummingbird (Patagona gigas) is known in Quechua, Bolivia as “burro q’enti” in reference to its dull plumage.
Alternate (Global) Names
Spanish: Colibrí Gigante, Picaflor gigante … French: Colibri géant, Oiseau-mouche géant … Italian: Colibrì gigante … German: Riesenkolibri … Czech: Kolibrík velký, kolib?ík velký … Danish: Kæmpekolibri … Estonian: suurkoolibri … Finnish: Jättikolibri … Japanese: oohachidori … Dutch: Reuzenkolibrie … Norwegian: Kjempekolibri … Polish: gigancik, Koliber wielki … Russian: ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ??????? … Slovak: Kolibrík vel’ký, patagóncan velký … Swedish: Jättekolibri
The Giant Hummingbird is the largest hummingbird, weighing 18-20 g (6/10 – 7/10 of an ounce); and averaging 21.5 cm (8½ in) in length.
Distribution / Range
The Giant Hummingbird occurs between 2,000 and 4,300 meters (6,500-14,100 feet) above sea level in the Andes of South America, from far south-western Colombia to central Chile and Argentina.
Within its range, they inhabit arid open woodland and scrub.
Subspecies and Distribution:
- Patagona gigas gigas (Vieillot, 1824) – Nominate Race
- Found in central and southern Chile (Atacama to Concepción and Valdivia, occasionally south to Aisén) and central-western Argentina (south to Mendoza). The southern populations winter in northern / northwestern Argentina (Catamarca, Tucumán).
- Patagona gigas peruviana (Boucard, 1893)
- Found in the Andes of southwestern Colombia (Nariño) through Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia to extreme northern Chile (Tarapacá) and northwestern Argentina (south to northern Catamarca and Tucumán).
- Patagona gigas gigas (Vieillot, 1824) – Nominate Race
Nesting / Breeding
Hummingbirds are solitary in all aspects of life other than breeding; and the male’s only involvement in the reproductive process is the actual mating with the female. They neither live nor migrate in flocks; and there is no pair bond for this species. Males court females by flying in a u-shaped pattern in front of them. He will separate from the female immediately after copulation. One male may mate with several females. In all likelihood, the female will also mate with several males. The males do not participate in choosing the nest location, building the nest or raising the chicks.
The female is responsible for building the cup-shaped nest out of plant fibers woven together and green moss on the outside for camouflage in a protected location in a shrub, bush or tree. The nest of the Giant Hummingbird is about 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter and 6 inches (15 cm) tall.
She lines the nest with soft plant fibers, animal hair and feather down, and strengthens the structure with spider webbing and other sticky material, giving it an elastic quality to allow it to stretch to double its size as the chicks grow and need more room. The nest is usually situated on a low, thin horizontal perch. However, Giant Hummingbird nests have also been found in a depression on the ground or attached to a branch of a cactus.
The average clutch consists of two white eggs, which she incubates alone, while the male defends his territory and the flowers he feeds on. The young are born blind, immobile and without any down.
The female alone protects and feeds the chicks with regurgitated food (mostly partially-digested insects since nectar is an insufficient source of protein for the growing chicks). The female pushes the food down the chicks’ throats with her long bill directly into their stomachs.
As is the case with other hummingbird species, the chicks are brooded only the first week or two, and left alone even on cooler nights after about 12 days – probably due to the small nest size. The chicks leave the nest when they are about 20 days old.
Diet / Feeding
The Giant Hummingbirds primarily feed on nectar taken from a variety of brightly colored, scented small flowers of trees, herbs, shrubs and epiphytes. They favor flowers with the highest sugar content (often red-colored and tubular-shaped) and seek out, and aggressively protect, those areas containing flowers with high energy nectar.They use their long, extendible, straw-like tongues to retrieve the nectar while hovering with their tails cocked upward as they are licking at the nectar up to 13 times per second. Sometimes they may be seen hanging on the flower while feeding.
Many native and cultivated plants on whose flowers these birds feed heavily rely on them for pollination. The mostly tubular-shaped flowers actually exclude most bees and butterflies from feeding on them and, subsequently, from pollinating the plants.
They may also visit local hummingbird feeders for some sugar water, or drink out of bird baths or water fountains where they will either hover and sip water as it runs over the edge; or they will perch on the edge and drink – like all the other birds; however, they only remain still for a short moment.
They also take some small spiders and insects – important sources of protein particularly needed during the breeding season to ensure the proper development of their young. Insects are often caught in flight (hawking); snatched off leaves or branches, or are taken from spider webs. A nesting female can capture up to 2,000 insects a day.
Males establish feeding territories, where they aggressively chase away other males as well as large insects – such as bumblebees and hawk moths – that want to feed in their territory. They use aerial flights and intimidating displays to defend their territories.
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