Mountain Caciques

The Mountain Caciques (Cacicus chrysonotus) – also known as Bolivian Caciques and Golden-shouldered Caciques – are found in northern and western South America, specifically in the following countries (from north to south): Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.

The Mountain Caciques are relatively uncommon within their range and mostly occur in humid montane and cloud forests.

Cacique InformationCacique Species Photo Gallery

Recognized Subspecies and Ranges

  • Northern Mountain Cacique (Cacicus (chrysonotus) leucoramphus – Bonaparte, 1845) – Nominate Race
    • Found in the Andes of western Venezuela (Táchira) and Colombia (all three cordilleras) south to southeastern Ecuador (Loja).
    • ID: Black plumage with a large yellow rump patch and yellow wing stripes. Blue eyes.
  • Cacicus chrysonotus peruvianus (J. T. Zimmer, 1924)
    • Range along the eastern slope of the Andes mountain range in central Peru (Amazonas south to Junín).

Not officially recognized, but also possibly a subspecies:

  • Bolivian Cacique or Southern Mountain Cacique (Cacicus [chrysonotus] chrysonotus)
    • Distribution: Andes of Peru (from Junín) south to central Bolivia (Santa Cruz).
    • ID: Lacks the yellow wing stripes. Yellow eyes.

Nesting / Breeding

Reported to breed in small colonies (less than 10 nets). Most of the nests are clustered near the tips of larger branches.

Alternate (Global) Names

Chinese: ???? … Czech: vlhovec zlatoh?betý … Danish: Sydlig Andespungstær … Dutch: Bergbuidelspreeuw, Geelstuit-bergbuidelspreeuw … Finnish: andienkasikki … French: Cassique montagnard … German: Bergkassike, Mittelandenkassike … Italian: Cacicco montano … Japanese: miyamatsurisudori … Norwegian: Bergkasik … Polish: kacyk andyjski … Slovak: trupiál andský … Spanish: Arrendajo Montañero, Arrendajo Montañés, Cacique Montano Sureño … Swedish: Sydlig bergskasik

Additional Resources