The Mountain Caciques (Cacicus chrysonotus) – also known as Bolivian Caciques and Golden-shouldered Caciques – are found in northern and western South America, specifically in the following countries (from north to south): Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.
The Mountain Caciques are relatively uncommon within their range and mostly occur in humid montane and cloud forests.
Cacique Information … Cacique Species Photo Gallery
Recognized Subspecies and Ranges
- Northern Mountain Cacique (Cacicus (chrysonotus) leucoramphus – Bonaparte, 1845) – Nominate Race
- Found in the Andes of western Venezuela (Táchira) and Colombia (all three cordilleras) south to southeastern Ecuador (Loja).
- ID: Black plumage with a large yellow rump patch and yellow wing stripes. Blue eyes.
- Cacicus chrysonotus peruvianus (J. T. Zimmer, 1924)
- Range along the eastern slope of the Andes mountain range in central Peru (Amazonas south to Junín).
Not officially recognized, but also possibly a subspecies:
- Bolivian Cacique or Southern Mountain Cacique (Cacicus [chrysonotus] chrysonotus)
- Distribution: Andes of Peru (from Junín) south to central Bolivia (Santa Cruz).
- ID: Lacks the yellow wing stripes. Yellow eyes.
Nesting / Breeding
Reported to breed in small colonies (less than 10 nets). Most of the nests are clustered near the tips of larger branches.
Alternate (Global) Names
Chinese: ???? … Czech: vlhovec zlatoh?betý … Danish: Sydlig Andespungstær … Dutch: Bergbuidelspreeuw, Geelstuit-bergbuidelspreeuw … Finnish: andienkasikki … French: Cassique montagnard … German: Bergkassike, Mittelandenkassike … Italian: Cacicco montano … Japanese: miyamatsurisudori … Norwegian: Bergkasik … Polish: kacyk andyjski … Slovak: trupiál andský … Spanish: Arrendajo Montañero, Arrendajo Montañés, Cacique Montano Sureño … Swedish: Sydlig bergskasik