Are African Grey Parrots Aggressive? Quick Guide to Their Behavior

African Grey Parrots, often hailed as one of the most intelligent avian species, have captivated humans for centuries.

These birds are not only adept at mimicking human speech but also possess cognitive skills comparable to those of a young child.

Due to their special capabilities, many humans want to keep them as pets.

However, a common question that comes up in this scenario is: Are African Grey Parrots aggressive?

In this article, I will explain how these birds are not aggressive by nature, but there are several triggers that can cause them to act up.

Moreover, I will also discuss how to tackle an aggressive African Grey. So let’s get cracking!

Are African Grey Parrots Aggressive?

Are African Grey Parrots Aggressive In Nature?

In their natural habitats, African Grey Parrots exhibit behaviors that are primarily driven by survival instincts rather than aggression.

These birds thrive in the dense rainforests of West and Central Africa, where they live in flocks and engage in social interactions, foraging activities, and mating rituals.

Their primary concerns revolve around finding food, protecting their territory, and avoiding predators.

Aggressive behaviors, such as territorial disputes or competition for mates, do occur but are generally situational and not a regular feature of the species.

Unlike raptor birds like eagles and hawks, these birds are not aggressive by nature. That does not, however, mean that they do not have a natural instinct for fighting.

For instance, a wild African Grey will defend its nest from intruders. This behavior is driven by the need to protect its offspring rather than an innately aggressive nature.

Moreover, the African Grey Parrot’s non-migratory status means that they establish territories and nesting sites that they return to year after year.

This territoriality can sometimes be mistaken for aggression, especially when the birds confront perceived threats.

However, these reactions are more about protection and less about unprovoked aggression.

In summary, wild African Grey Parrots can be assertive, but these behaviors are rooted in survival instincts and environmental factors.

Wild African Greys exhibit aggression for their territories, mates and offspring

Factors Influencing Aggressive Behavior

Understanding the factors that influence aggressive behavior in African Grey Parrots is crucial for potential and current owners.

While these birds are not inherently dangerous, certain situations or conditions can trigger aggressive responses.

Hormonal Changes

Just like many animals, African Grey Parrots undergo hormonal changes, especially during the breeding season and as they reach sexual maturity.

During these periods, male African Greys, in particular, can become more territorial.

For instance, a usually docile male parrot might suddenly become aggressive when someone approaches its nesting area or shows interest in its mate.


Despite their intelligence, these birds can be easily frightened. A sudden, loud noise, an unfamiliar face, or even a new toy can be perceived as threats.

In such scenarios, their first instinct might be to bite or lash out.

For example, introducing a new pet into a household can make an African Grey feel threatened, leading to aggressive behaviors until they become accustomed to the newcomer.

Lack of Socialization

Early and consistent socialization is vital for African Grey Parrots.

Birds that haven’t been exposed to varied experiences, people, or environments during their formative months or years can become wary or aggressive towards unfamiliar stimuli.

A parrot that hasn’t been introduced to children, for instance, might react aggressively if a child suddenly approaches its cage.

If an African Grey hasn’t been socialized early on, it might begin to manifest aggressive behaviors

Frustration and Boredom

Given their high intelligence, African Greys need constant mental stimulation.

A lack of toys, interaction, or activities can lead to frustration.

A bird left alone for extended periods might resort to screaming, biting, or other aggressive behaviors out of sheer boredom.

For example, if an African Grey is used to puzzle toys and they’re suddenly removed, the bird might become agitated and lash out.

Illness or Pain

Like any creature, an African Grey Parrot in pain or suffering from an illness can become irritable.

A bird with a hidden injury or an undetected ailment might bite when handled, not out of aggression, but as a reaction to the discomfort.


Environmental changes can be stressful for African Greys. Being taken from their natural habitat and confined can lead to anxiety.

Similarly, changing their cage, moving them to a new location, or even confining them in a too-small cage can lead to aggressive behaviors.

Typically, a 36” x 24” x 48” cage is the bare minimum that you should provide for your African Grey, with a bar spacing of ¾”.

Sometimes, a bird used to a spacious cage might also become territorial and aggressive if moved to a smaller space.

Protective Behavior

African Grey Parrots can be quite protective, especially when it comes to their territory, mates, or offspring.

This protective instinct can extend to their human caretakers, whom they might view as part of their “flock.”

If they feel that their human is being “threatened” by another person or pet, they might exhibit aggressive behaviors.

African Greys can become quite possessive for their human caretakers

Another problem could be jealousy.

For example, if an African Grey has bonded closely with a particular family member and sees them showing affection to another pet or person, the bird might react with jealousy.

This can lead to aggressive behaviors like biting or screaming.

Recognizing and understanding the triggers above can help owners prevent aggressive incidents.

Age and Aggression

Just like humans, African Greys also go through different stages of life, and their aggression levels can vary significantly as they age. Here’s a breakdown.

Juvenile African Greys

Younger African Greys, especially those that are still juveniles, can exhibit nippy behavior.

This is often not out of aggression but rather as a form of exploration.

Just as human babies like to put everything in their mouths to explore the world, young parrots use their beaks to test and learn about their environment.

This behavior can sometimes be mistaken for aggression.

Adolescent African Greys

As they reach adolescence, African Greys, like many other parrot species, can go through a “teenage” phase.

This period, which can occur as they approach sexual maturity, might be marked by increased hormonal activity leading to mood swings and heightened aggression.

This phase is temporary, but it’s crucial for owners to be patient and consistent in their interactions during this time.

Older African Greys

Mature and older African Greys tend to be more settled in their behavior.

However, if they have developed aggressive habits over the years and these have not been addressed, they might continue displaying such behaviors.

On the flip side, a well-socialized and trained older African Grey can be very calm and less prone to aggression.

Older African Greys tend to be calmer

Are Male African Greys More Aggressive?

In many bird species, males can be more territorial and aggressive, especially during breeding seasons, due to hormonal surges.

However, in African Greys, the difference in aggression between males and females is not as pronounced.

Both sexes can display territorial behaviors, especially during breeding seasons.

It’s essential to note that individual personality plays a more significant role than gender in determining aggression levels.

Signs of Aggression in African Grey Parrots

Recognizing the signs of aggression in African Grey Parrots is essential for ensuring the safety of both the bird and its caretakers.


Birds don’t have arms to fight, so biting is their one way to show aggression. This is true of all birds, not just African Greys.

But why do African Grey Parrots bite sometimes? Is it only because they are angry? Not exactly. The reasons can be multifaceted. 

They might bite out of fear, territoriality, hormonal changes, or even because they’re in pain.

It’s also worth noting that not all bites are aggressive; some might be exploratory or even playful.

However, when an African Grey does bite out of aggression, the intensity can be quite high.

A warning nip might be gentle, but a bite from a frightened or threatened parrot can be powerful. 

And if you are wondering whether African Grey parrot bites hurt, the answer is very much yes. 

Given the strength of their beaks, a serious bite can cause significant pain and even break the skin.

An African Grey’s bite is quite powerful

Fluffed Up Feathers and Their Meanings

When an African Grey fluffs up its feathers, it’s not always a sign of aggression.

However, in certain contexts, especially when combined with other aggressive behaviors, it can indicate that the bird is agitated or feeling threatened.

A parrot that’s fluffed up, with eyes pinning (rapidly dilating and constricting pupils), is signaling that it’s on high alert.

Vocal Indications Such as Squawking or Screaming

African Greys are known for their vocal abilities, and while they can mimic a variety of sounds, their natural vocalizations can also provide insights into their emotional state.

Squawking or screaming, especially when it’s louder or more persistent than usual, can be a sign of distress, fear, or aggression.

For instance, a sudden, loud squawk might indicate that the bird has been startled or feels threatened.

Physical Actions: Lunging, Wing Flapping

Physical actions can be clear indicators of a parrot’s emotional state.

Lunging, where the bird makes a sudden forward movement as if to bite or attack, is a defensive behavior.

It’s a clear sign that the parrot feels threatened and is ready to defend itself.

Similarly, aggressive wing flapping, especially when combined with other signs of aggression, can indicate that the bird is agitated.

It’s essential to differentiate between regular wing stretches and aggressive flapping.

The latter is usually more forceful and is often accompanied by other signs of distress or aggression.

Lunging at you or flapping their wings is a common sign of aggression

Addressing and Managing Aggressive Behavior

Managing aggressive behavior in African Grey Parrots requires a comprehensive approach that combines understanding, patience, and consistency.

By addressing the root causes of aggression and implementing effective strategies, owners can avoid unnecessary confrontation with their birds.

Understanding Triggers

Just as humans have specific things that irritate or upset them, parrots too have triggers that can induce aggressive behavior.

It’s essential to observe your parrot closely and identify what these triggers might be.

For example, a particular toy, a sudden movement, or even a specific person might upset your bird.

By understanding these triggers, you can either avoid them or introduce them gradually in a controlled environment to desensitize the bird.

Positive Reinforcement

One of the most effective ways to manage aggressive behavior is through positive reinforcement.

This involves rewarding the bird for good behavior and ignoring or redirecting unwanted behavior.

For instance, if your parrot steps up onto your hand without biting, you can reward it with a treat or verbal praise.

However, note that negative reinforcement, especially punishments, needs to be avoided.

If your parrot shows signs of aggression, redirect its attention with a toy or activity, rather than punishing it.


Exposing your African Grey to a variety of experiences, people, and environments can help reduce fear and aggression.

For example, allowing your bird to interact with different family members or guests (under supervision) can help it become more accustomed to various people.

Similarly, exposing it to different sounds, like the vacuum cleaner or doorbell, in a controlled manner can help reduce fear-induced aggression.

Exposing your bird to several experiences helps make them calmer

Consistency in Training

Just like any other pet, African Greys thrive on consistency. Establishing a routine and sticking to consistent training methods can help reduce confusion and aggression.

For instance, if you’re teaching your bird to step up, use the same command and reward system each time.

Changing the rules or methods can confuse the bird and lead to frustration.

Mental Stimulation

Boredom can be a significant cause of aggression in intelligent birds like African Greys. 

Providing them with puzzles, toys, and activities can keep their minds engaged and reduce aggressive tendencies.

For example, foraging toys that require the bird to solve a puzzle to get a treat can be an excellent way to keep them mentally stimulated.

Professional Help

Despite your best efforts, there might be times when the aggression becomes unmanageable. In such cases, it’s essential to seek professional help.

Avian behaviorists can provide insights into the specific causes of aggression in your bird and offer tailored solutions.

Similarly, a visit to an avian veterinarian can help rule out any health issues that might be causing the aggressive behavior.

Building Trust with African Grey Parrots

Building trust with an African Grey Parrot is akin to depositing into a ‘trust account’.

Every positive interaction adds to this account, while negative experiences make withdrawals.

Over time, a healthy balance in this trust account ensures a strong and harmonious bond between the bird and its caretaker.

Invest in a trust account with your bird, maximize good experiences and reduce bad experiences to the maximum extent possible

The Concept of the ‘Trust Account’ with Birds

Just as with human relationships, trust with a parrot is built over time and through consistent positive interactions.

Think of each interaction as a deposit or withdrawal from a trust account.

For example, if you approach your bird calmly and it willingly steps onto your hand, that’s a deposit.

Conversely, if you force the bird to do something against its will, that’s a withdrawal.

The goal is to have more deposits than withdrawals to maintain a positive balance in the trust account.

The Importance of Positive Interactions and Avoiding Negative Experiences

Positive interactions can range from simple actions like talking softly to your bird, providing treats, or allowing it to explore a new toy.

For instance, if your African Grey is wary of a new perch, instead of forcing it onto the perch, you can place treats nearby to encourage exploration.

Over time, these positive experiences accumulate, leading to a more trusting bird.

On the other hand, negative experiences, such as yelling, chasing, or handling the bird roughly, can quickly erode the trust you’ve built.

Recognizing and Respecting the Parrot’s Choices

Just like humans, parrots have preferences, moods, and boundaries. It’s essential to recognize and respect these choices.

For example, if your African Grey shows signs of not wanting to be handled (like retreating or fluffing up its feathers), it’s best to give it space and try again later.

Similarly, if it shows a preference for a particular toy or treat, use that to your advantage in training and bonding sessions.

By acknowledging and respecting your bird’s choices, you communicate that its feelings and preferences matter, further solidifying the trust between you.

Watch out for signs of discomfort in your African Grey and avoid things that make them uncomfortable until they are ready for them

How to Deal With an Aggressive African Grey Parrot?

Dealing with an aggressive African Grey Parrot requires a combination of understanding, patience, and clear strategies.

Aggression in these birds can stem from various factors, from fear to territorial behavior. 

Addressing aggression effectively ensures the safety of both the bird and its caretaker, while also fostering a more harmonious relationship.

Removing the Bird From the Situation Until it Cools Down

When an African Grey displays aggressive behavior, it’s essential to de-escalate the situation promptly.

One effective method is to calmly and gently remove the bird from the triggering environment. 

For instance, if your parrot becomes aggressive when guests are over, placing it in a quiet room away from the commotion can help it calm down.

It’s crucial to ensure that this is not perceived as a punishment but rather as a “cooling-off” period.

Using a calm voice and gentle movements can reassure the bird and prevent further stress.

Establishing Clear Boundaries with Your Pet Bird

Just as with any pet, setting clear boundaries is crucial for a harmonious relationship. For African Greys, this means establishing routines and consistent behaviors that the bird can predict and rely on.

For example:

  • Feeding Times: Stick to regular feeding times. This not only establishes a routine but also ensures that hunger isn’t a trigger for aggression.
  • Handling: If your bird is not in the mood to be handled, respect its signals. Forcing interactions can lead to bites or other aggressive behaviors. Over time, with trust and positive reinforcement, your bird may become more receptive to handling.
  • Territorial Behavior: African Greys can be territorial about their cages. Always approach the cage calmly and speak to the bird before entering its space. If the bird is particularly protective of certain toys or perches, be aware of this and approach with caution.
  • Introducing New Items: When introducing new toys, perches, or even food, do so gradually. Allow the bird to observe and get accustomed to the new item from a distance before placing it within its immediate environment.
Setting up a schedule helps get them quickly accustomed to things in your home


For potential and current African Grey owners, knowledge is power.

Being informed and attentive to your parrot’s needs, understanding their unique personalities, and investing time in their training and socialization can lead to a rewarding and lasting bond. 

It’s crucial to understand that these magnificent creatures are not inherently aggressive.

Like any other living being, their behavior is a complex interplay of genetics, upbringing, environment, and individual experiences.

Proper care, consistent training, and a deep understanding of their needs help them become accustomed to and even affectionate towards you.

Recognizing the signs of discomfort, stress, or potential aggression and addressing them promptly can prevent many behavioral issues.

Moreover, building trust, setting boundaries, and ensuring their mental and physical well-being can significantly reduce aggressive tendencies.

Remember, a well-adjusted and happy African Grey is a joy to be around, and the onus is on us, as their caregivers, to provide them with the environment they deserve.

Photo of author

Team Beauty of Birds's team of experts includes veterinarians, biologists, environmentalists and active bird watchers. All put together, we have over half a century of experience in the birding space.

You can meet our team here.
Team Beauty of Birds is separate from the “Parrot Parent University” parrot training course and its instructors.

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