Images of Bird Circulatory System, Blood & Heart by Jeannine Miesle

Main Article: Avian Medical Terms / Health & Diseases by Jeannine Miesle, MA, Allied Member, Association of Avian Veterinarians …

Avian Anatomy Image Gallery (NOTE: Some of the images / illustrations on this and linked pages may be too graphic for young audiences. We recommend parental supervision and approval.)


Avian Red Blood cells, normal B4851DF2820D1B69564761CC&selectedIndex=26&ccid=2PnUVW3l&simid=608022238420797182&thid=JN. FRA2pLUKXlc3JN8lfpVfAA&ajaxhist=0

Avian Red Blood cells,

Aortic Arch in Heart 06BC90A26354922A20DE&selectedIndex=136&ccid=%2fjQykJ%2fP&simid=607989459237734554&thid=JN. HjNsg7bPLjPtBN%2f0k19RmQ&ajaxhist=0

Aortic Arch in Heart

Heart and circulatory system of birds

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    Heart and circulatory system of birds

    Layers of the heart, heart muscle (myocardium, pericardium, endocardium)

    Layers of the heart, heart muscle (myocardium, pericardium, endocardium)

    Circulatory system and Heart AD5EDF91A332C32F7CFE6B3EEC&selectedIndex=2&ccid=KqT36oJj&simid=608039250791762293&thid=J N.pQcrZBVUSW2Bfah7KATb6w&ajaxhist=0

    Circulatory system and Heart

    Heart: Pericardium DEFE7180C312947&selectedIndex=1&ccid=ioKuBLfd&simid=608008988470675156&thid=JN.QE%2f5DMIaATTSFsYSB rah1w&ajaxhist=0

    Heart: Pericardium

    Pericardial layers

    The Heart Wall / Pencardial Layers

    Blood fractionation 99097E7F5A61D981FA3&selectedIndex=19&ccid=Ugq9KkmE&simid=608032580713906949&thid=JN.lab2w4 BRGBL1BhUVGgFwWQ&ajaxhist=0

    Blood fractionation

    Buffy Coat 2EE8BC6CB1EAA&selectedIndex=2&ccid=DEXsW2au&simid=608016861114073755&thid=JN.1sGRyiMTOy %2fPCNV8CQNnAw&ajaxhist=0

    Buffy Coat


    Apoptosis 4CDD77C8998C91A5B5229CF2&selectedIndex=12&ccid=01p%2flKkF&simid=608035728922906593&thid=J N.YtSu9Vh%2fPnM8GFT31ZI7pg&ajaxhist=0

    Apoptosis definition, cell apoptosis pathway, steps ...

    Difference between apoptosis and necrosis 5421FB0C53EE&selectedIndex=111&ccid=7UoD0jTW&simid=608035578594593976&thid=JN.P9LqD39CSqg ZSCvV3cIxgA&ajaxhist=0 85

    Difference between apoptosis and necrosis

    Cell structure and mitochondria 8C96A6F38DCAE&selectedIndex=54&ccid=GMf4v0Ov&simid=608004757919108313&thid=JN.sBGxVCEMe3oOmSEy16 Kp7A&ajaxhist=0

    Cell structure and mitochondria

    Mast Cells and allergy

    Mast Cells and allergy



    Avian Eye 3030BAE5246C&selectedIndex=7&ccid=l6bi1YzK&simid=608037747549145014&thid=JN.x%2fEWR3QulR9T cdY04z%2bm2g&ajaxhist=0

    Avian (Bird) Eye

    Avian Eye 0A0&selectedIndex=5&ccid=TcWrBL73&simid=608054407734100980&thid=JN.MOQXR799X47%2bkrVjwucUsA&ajaxhis t=0

    Avian Eye

    Avian Eye muscles 04DFB&selectedIndex=403&ccid=OYjNG%2fgi&simid=607989257379053594&thid=JN.JDCsoFqkW9J5JG0AYkQsdg&aj axhist=0

    Avian Eye muscles

    Nictitating Membrane 3C042133CC6C99E1A98&selectedIndex=134&ccid=7CIc5nQH&simid=608013987803824577&thid=JN.A5gNNugLCGqO M0tEwUG6DA&ajaxhist=0

    Nictitating Membrane

    Cataract in eye 08DDFCEBC35E361DBA&selectedIndex=2&ccid=qcF4Rl0J&simid=608047780567387800&thid=HN.6080477 80567387800

    Cataract in eye

    Hematoma on bird’s eye.

    Hematoma on Bird's eye

    Lateral canthus and nasal canthus (pl: canthi): Lateral, temporal, or outer canthus is the corner of the eye closer to the ear or back of the head. Inner, nasal, or medial canthus is close to the beak and holds the tear ducts. ED5858268404878&selectedIndex=48&ccid=okfBFqZz&simid=608021551279114907&thid=JN.FAYmmCtht%2fmkGeRE YgEo3Q&ajaxhist=0

    Lateral canthus and nasal canthus (pl: canthi):

    Avian Ear structure FCE33E3042863&selectedIndex=2&ccid=4oUoo0%2fj&simid=608042510676986302&thid=JN.Fzcviz2jyu8Fi2 7ZCW0jQA&ajaxhist=0

    Avian Ear structure

    Ear meatus 91140&selectedIndex=16&ccid=3iF6RFm5&simid=608011114461596215&thid=JN.NW7p5qHUyMExUK9UYcf8wQ&ajax hist=0

    Ear meatus


    Nerve cells 2E7876BB26BA93D4A99ED51F&selectedIndex=23&ccid=2oHXspTQ&simid=608007828801521408&thid=JN. bD51g31vVq471Oe6wOt

    Nerve cells

    Bird’s brain, cerebellum 9F19D4C8FE56&selectedIndex=2&ccid=eGNTSpYQ&simid=608052547974594858&thid=HN.6080525479745 948

    Bird’s brain, cerebellum

    Avian Brain F623D3DC55CF&selectedIndex=5&ccid=4ZtHrqvY&simid=608015091566120238&thid=HN.60801509156612 02

    Avian Brain

    Wry neck (torticollis) 1F3CB74103&selectedIndex=31&ccid=%2fb0Af0EQ&simid=607989205846460103&thid=JN.ay%2bsNZBhnskRkFpyg8V T8w&ajaxhist=0

    Wry neck (torticollis)


    Pain and nociceptors 89

    Pain and nociceptors

    B1: myelinated nerve sheath

    B1: myelinated nerve sheath

    B-2 Nerve Cell diagram

    B-2 Nerve Cell diagram

    Nerve fiber with myelinated sheath 809E0C45AD0&selectedIndex=1&ccid=JKFhhcy0&simid=608004298358392409&thid=JN.DAtZRiePD%2boFyvtVBnrKvg &ajaxhist=0

    Nerve fiber with myelinated sheath


    Major Muscles 4C7F91E9CD472&selectedIndex=0&ccid=SfSC3Aw8&simid=608045654573318226&thid=JN.2WR3Xo22pdwrgusHln1tN A&ajaxhist=0 

    Major Muscles

    Foot action muscles&id=B5DD55A07008F4E71F4EEAA6D1300A6C42A57CDE&selectedIndex=17&ccid=NjkzygYW&simi d=608019605602305089&thid=JN.zumpFwJVzzOlYS3bapWL2A&ajaxhist=0

    Foot Action

    Patagium 433FAA1&selectedIndex=9&ccid=pVBCApTd&simid=608027705906693872&thid=JN.rl%2f6CoUp8stVtUuWISStKw&ajax hist=0


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      Propatag= Propatagium, Metapatag=metapatagium

      • Pt. Lg. Patagial longus tendon, Pt.Br. Bi
      • Lig: Ligament, Elast.sec:
      • Propatag: Propatagium
      • Metapatag: metapatagium
      • Tri: Tricep muscle

      Propatag= Propatagium, Metapatag=metapatagium

      Wing and breast muscles and erector and depressor muscles

      Wing and breast muscles and erector and depressor muscles

      Muscles and bones of the wing and breast

      Muscles and bones of the wing and breast

      Piloerection and feather fluffing

      Piloerection and feather fluffing



      Uropygial gland 0D9D5BEA2A77DCC3&selectedIndex=31&ccid=syWYFrYT&simid=608037897862316118&thid=JN.9%2fMG4 %2fxSTJ8qdMi0F96CSg&ajaxhist=0

      Uropygial gland

      Cockatiel uropygial gland. (Miesle)

      Cockatiel uropygial gland. (Miesle)

      Salt glands in a water bird DC70D21106BAC1&selectedIndex=10&ccid=mR9Xfcfr&simid=608052092744174147&thid=JN.gMK%2fx8gj15QF0GyH5 6083w&ajaxhist=0 92

      Salt glands in a water bird

      Salt glands and ducts

      Salt glands and ducts


      Wound Healing by First, Second, And Third Intention

      First Intention (Primary Intention)

      • per primam; union of accurately coapted edges of a wound, with an irreducible minimum of granulation tissue.
      • The tissue is restored by fibrous adhesion, without the formation of granulation tissue; it results in a thin scar. In primary wound healing there is no tissue loss.

      A, Incised wound is held together by a blood clot and possibly by sutures or surgical clamps. An inflammatory process begins in adjacent tissue at the moment of injury.

      B, After several days, granulation tissue forms as a result of migration of fibroblasts to the area of injury and formation of new capillaries. Epithelial cells at wound margin migrate to clot and seal the wound. Regenerating epithelium covers the wound.

      C, Scarring occurs as granulation tissue matures and injured tissue is replaced with connective tissue.

      Wound Healing by First, Second, And Third Intention

      Wound Healing By First Intention (primary wound healing or primary closure)

      • Describes a wound closed by approximation of wound margins or by placement of a graft or flap, or wounds created and closed in the operating room.
      • Best choice for clean, fresh wounds in well-vascularized areas
      • Indications include recent (<24h old), clean wounds where viable tissue is tension-free and approximation and eversion of skin edges is achievable.
      • Wound is treated with irrigation and debridement and the tissue margins are approximated using simple methods or with sutures, grafts or flaps.
      • Wound is treated within 24 h following injury, prior to development of granulation tissue.
      • Final appearance of scar depends on: initial injury, amount of contamination and ischemia (inadequate blood supply), as well as method and accuracy of wound closure; however, they are often the fastest and most cosmetically pleasing method of healing.

      Wound Healing By Second Intention. (per secundam; union by adhesion of granulating surfaces)

      • WOUND HEALING occurs by adhesion of granulating surfaces, when the edges of the wound are far apart and cannot be brought together.
      • Granulations form from the base and sides of the wound toward the surface
      • There is tissue loss, as in extensive burns and deep ulcers.
      • The healing process is more prolonged than in healing by primary intention because large amounts of dead tissue must be removed and replaced with viable cells.

      A, Open area is more extensive; inflammatory reaction is more widespread and tends to become chronic.

      B, Healing may occur under a scab formed of dried exudate, or dried plasma proteins and dead cells (eschar).

      C, Fibroblasts and capillary buds migrate toward center of would to form granulation tissue, which becomes a translucent red color as the capillary network develops. Granulation tissue is fragile and bleeds easily.

      D, As granulation tissue matures, marginal epithelial cells migrate and proliferate over connective tissue base to form a scar. Contraction of skin around scar is the result of movement of epithelial cells toward center of wound in an attempt to close the defect. Surrounding skin moves toward center of wound in an effort to close the defect. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved .

      Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved

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        Healing By Second Intention (secondary wound healing or spontaneous healing)

        • Describes a wound left open and allowed to close by epithelialization and contraction.
        • Commonly used in the management of contaminated or infected wounds.
        • Wound is left open to heal without surgical intervention.
        • Indicated in infected or severely contaminated wounds.  Unlike primary wounds, approximation of wound margins occurs via reepithelialization and wound contraction by myofibroblasts.
        • Presence of granulation tissue.
        • Complications include late wound contracture and hypertrophic scarring

        Wound Healing By Third Intention or Delayed Primary CLOSURE. 

        • WOUND HEALING by the gradual filling of a wound cavity by granulations and a cicatrix (a scar resulting from formation and contraction of fibrous tissue in a wound)  
        • The method of closing a grossly contaminated wound in which the wound is left open until contamination has been markedly reduced and inflammation has subsided and then is closed by first intention.
        • The restoration of structure and function of injured or diseased tissues.
        • The healing processes include blood clotting, tissue mending, scarring and bone healing.

        Healing By Third Intention (tertiary wound healing or delayed primary closure) per tertiam; union of a wound that is closed surgically several days after the injury. See also delayed primary closure

        • Useful for managing wounds that are too heavily contaminated for primary closure but appear clean and well vascularized after 4-5 days of open observation. Over this time, the inflammatory process has reduced the bacterial concentration of the wound to allow safe closure.
        • Subsequent repair of a wound initially left open or not previously treated. 
        •  Indicated for infected or unhealthy wounds with high bacterial content, wounds with a long time lapse since injury, or wounds with a severe crush component with significant tissue devitalization.
        • Often used for infected wounds where bacterial count contraindicates primary closure and the inflammatory process can be left to débride the wound.
        • Wound edges are approximated within 3-4 days and tensile strength develops as with primary closure.

        Partial Thickness Wounds

        • Wound is superficial, not penetrating the entire dermis.
        • Type of healing seen with 1st degree burns and abrasions.
        • Healing occurs mainly by epithelialization from remaining dermal elements.
        • Less contraction than secondary healing in full-thickness wounds
        • Minimal collagen production and scar formation.

        Granulomatous tissue in wound healing DE248EAA4DA74&selectedIndex=116&ccid=G0m0PthJ&simid=608005350643401482&thid=JN.XRpxesDJBjiA9H%2bkR dSatg&ajaxhist=0

        Granulomatous tissue in wound healing


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          Bummble Foot


          Hepatic Lipidosis, Fatty liver disease


          Fatty Liver Disease in Birds

          Bird’s kidneys (lower two lobes); small organ in center is heart.

          Birds' Kidneys


          Articular gout

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          Articular Gout

          Articular gout

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          Articular Gout

          Visceral gout 

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          Visceral Gout in Birds

          Surgical instruments

          Trocar and canula; Top is trocar, bottom is cannula


          Surgical Instruments


          Photo of author

          Jeannine Miesle

          Jeannine Miesle, M.A., M.Ed, Allied Member, Association of Avian Veterinarians is an important contributor to Beauty of Birds. Jeannine has done considerable writing, proofreading and editing for journals and newsletters over the years. She had taught English and music in the schools and presently is an organist at Bethany Church in West Chester, Ohio. She also administrates a Facebook group, The Science of Avian Health.

          Jeannine takes in rescued cockatiels and presently has twelve birds. When they come to her they remain as part of her flock.