Avian Medical Terms (Avian Health & Diseases) by Jeannine Miesle

Main Article: Avian Medical Terms / Health & Diseases by Jeannine Miesle, MA, Allied Member, Association of Avian Veterinarians

Terms:   Directional TermsRegions of the bodyPrefixes & SufficesMuscle Movement … Number ValuesAbbreviations … Organizations  … Commonly Used Medical Terms

Relevant Images:  Relevant Avian Anatomy Image Gallery (NOTE: Some of the images / illustrations on this and linked pages may be too graphic for young audiences. We recommend parental supervision and approval.)


Directional terms

Aborad: away from mouth of organ

Anterior: toward the front, in front of another body part, towards the head; part closest to the head.

Bilateral: both sides

Caudal: toward back end, tail or rear, opposite of cranial, back of an organ

Cephalic: head area Contralateral: located or acting in conjunction with similar parts on opposite side of body

Cranial/Anterior: toward north wall or head

Deep: away from surface, internal

Distal: far from point of attachment, as a bone; farthest away from center of body or organ; point of origin or attachment, as a limb or bone

Dorsal: toward ceiling or back of body Inferior: lowermost, below or toward Ipsilateral/contralateral: situated on the same side/opposite side of the body

Lateral: away from midline of body or body part

Medial: toward midline of body or body part

Orad: toward the mouth

Posterior/posteriad: toward the rear of body or body part

Proximal: nearest the midline or beginning of a structure; closest to the center of the body or organ, or toward the point of origin or attachment, as a limb or bone; nearer to the point of reference

Rostral, toward the front of the head or organ

Rostral-caudal; x-ray taken from below the beak

Superficial: near the surface

Superior/external: near the surface

Ventral: toward floor or belly

Ventral-dorsal: bird on back / Dorsal-ventral: bird on breast


Regions of the body

Carpal: the wrist area

Crown: area behind the forehead to the occipital region

Crural: the leg area, as in crural feathering

Dorsum: the back or entire dorsal surface of the body

Flank/Side: lateral area posterior to side of body; extends back to the base of the tail

Forehead/frontal region: area above the cere to the crown

Inguinal: lowest lateral regions of the abdomen

Jugal area: cheek area

Jugulum: ventral, midline region of throat

Nape/upper hindneck/nuchal region: dorsal surface of the neck, from the base of the skull to the thoracic vertebrae.

Occipital: the area where the spinal column meets the base of the skull at the nape

Occiput: hindhead; back portion of bird’s crown; elongated feathers

Orbital: the eye sockets

Pilium: entire top of the head, the forehead, crown and occipital regions

Pectoral: the ventral chest and breast regions between the sternum and the shoulder

Prolateral: side area by neck; projecting from or on the side facing forward

Proventer region: above vent

Sacral: the region between the crests of the pelvis; the fused bones of the synsacrum

Rump/uropygial area/lower back: the region that overlies the pelvic bones, between the flanks and above the tail


Combining Forms for Organs

Skeletal system:

  • Bones: osteo, osse, ossi
  • Joints: arthro
  • Cartilage: chondro
  • Bone Marrow: myelo

Muscular System

  • Muscles: myo
  • Fascia: fasci, fascio
  • Tendons: teno, tendo, tenino

Cardiovascular system

  • Heart: cardio
  • Arteries: arterio
  • Vein: veno, phlebo
  • Blood: hemo, hemato

Lymphatic & Immune Systems

  • Lymph Vessels, fluid, nodes: lympho
  • Tonsils: tonsillo
  • Spleen: spleno
  • Thymus: thymo

Respiratory System

  • Nose/nares: naso, rhino
  • Pharynx: pharyngo
  • Trachea: tracho
  • Larynx: laryngo
  • Lungs: pneumo,pneumono

Digestive System:

  • Mandible: gnatho
  • Mouth: oro, stomato
  • Esophagus: esophago
  • Stomach: gastro
  • Small intestine: entero
  • Large intestine: colo, colono
  • Liver: heap, hepato
  • Pancreas: pancreato

Urinary system

  • Kidneys: hema, reno, nephro
  • Ureters: ureto
  • Urinary bladder: cysto
  • Urethra: urethra
  • Urine: urino, uro

Nervous System/Senses

  • Nerves: neuro, neuri
  • Brain: encephalo
  • Spinal cord: myelo
  • Eyes: opthalmo, oculo, opto, opti
  • Sight: optico
  • Ears: otic, oto, auri, auro, audito, audi
  • External Ear/sound: acousto, acouso

Integumentary System

  • Skin: dermato, dermo, cutaneo

Endocrine system

  • Adeno: gland
  • Adrenals: adreno
  • Gonads: gonado
  • Pineal: pineal
  • Pituitary: pituito
  • Thyroid: thyroid, thyro

Reproductive system:

  • Testes: orcho, orchio, orchid, testiculo
  • Ovaries: ovary, oophor
  • Uterus: hysteron, metro, metri, metrio, utero

Muscle movement

Adduction: toward the midline

Abduction: away from midline

Extension: straightening a joint, increase angle between two bones

Flexion: closure of joint angle or reduction of the angle between two bones

Hyperflexion/hyperextension: flexed or extended too far

Supination: rotating limb/body part so that the palmar surface is turned upward: e.g., upward cupped hand 

Pronation: rotating limb or body part so that palmar surface is turned downward


Number Values

1: uni, mono

2: duo, bi, dyo 

3: tri

4: quadic, quadro, tetr, tetra

5: quinqu, quint, pent, penta

6: sex, hex, hexa

7: sept, septi, hept, hepta

8: octo, oct, octa

9: novem, nonus, ennea

10: deca, decem, dek, deka

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    Abbreviations:

    ac: before meals (ante cibum)

    ad lib: as much as desired (ad libitum)

    ANS: autonomic nervous system

    bid: twice daily (bis in die)

    cal: calorie

    cap: capsule

    cc: cubic centimeter (same as mL)

    cm: centimeter

    CNS: central nervous system

    ED: effective dose

    g: gram

    gal: gallon

    GI: gastrointestinal

    hr: hour

    ID: intradermal

    IM: intramuscular

    IU: International unit

    IU/L: international units per liter

    IV: intravenous

    kg: kilogram

    LOC: level of consciousness

    mg: milligram

    m: meter

    MED: minimal effective dose

    mg: milligram

    mm: millimeter

    NPO: nothing by mouth (non per os)

    NSAID: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug

    OTC: over the counter

    oz: ounce

    pc: after meals (post cibumP)

    PD: polydipsia

    pH: acidity and alkalinity measurement

    PM: postmortem

    PNS: peripheral nervous system

    PO/po: orally (per os)

    P r n: as needed

    PU: polyuria

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      q: every

      qd: every day

      qh: every hour

      q4h: every 4 hours

      qid: four times daily (quarter in die)

      qn: every night

      qod/eod: every other day

      qp: as much as desired

      qt: quart

      RBC: red blood cell

      sid: once daily (q24h is more common for once daily

      sig: let it be written as (used when writing prescriptions)

      soln: solution

      SQ/SC: subcutaneous

      T: tablespoon/ tablet/ temperature

      tid: three times daily (ter in die)

      tsp: teaspoon

      vol: volume

      WBC: white blood cell


      Organizations:

      AAV: Association of Avian Veterinarians

      ABA: American Birding Assn.

      ABC: American Bird Conservancy

      AOU: Amer. Ornithologists’ Union

      NAS: Nat’l Audubon Society

      WWF: World Wildlife Fund.html

      Glossary of Avian Medical Terms – Prefixes and Suffixes

       

      Main Article: Avian Medical Terms by Jeannine Miesle, MA, Allied Member, Association of Avian Veterinarians

      Prefixes:

      A, an, ana: without, no

      Ab: away from

      Ad: toward

      Aer/Aero: oxygen/air

      Adipo: fat

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        Anem: blood condition

        Anti: against

        Auto: self, within

        Blephar: eyellids

        Chezein: feces

        Copr: feces

        Chrome/chromo: color

        Cyan: blue discoloration

        Cyto: cell

        Dys: bad, painful, difficult

        Ecto: outside

        Endo: inside, within

        Epi: above

        Eu: good, easy, normal

        Ex,exo: without, out of, outside, away from

        Extra: outside

        Hetero: other, dissimilar

        Histo: tissue

        Homo-Same

        Hyper: more than normal

        Hypo: less than normal

        Illi: hip

        Infra: below, beneath

        Inter: between

        Intra: within

        Isch: to hold back

        Karyo-nucleus

        Leu/leuko: white

        Leio/lio: smooth

        Lipid/lipo: fat

        Meso: middle

        Meta: beyond

        Myco: fungus

        Myelo: bone marrow, where body makes cells

        Myxo: mucous, slime

        Neo: new

        Oligo: scant, little

        Onco: tumor, mass

        Onycho: nails

        Pan: all

        Para: alongside, associated with, closely resembling true form, beyond, outside of, faulty, irregular, abnormal, accessory to, against, apart from

        Per: throughout

        Peri: around, before, during, after

        Phagia: eat, swallow

        Poly: many, excessive

        Pre: before

        Post: after

        Proprio: owns own

        Sub: beneath, below, nearly, almost, under, less

        Super, supra: above, beyond, excessive

        Thelo: nipple, thin membrane

        Thymo: thymus, mind, soul, emotions

        Tono:tone, tension

        Trans: across

        Ultra: above, increased, more than normal

        Vaso: vessel or duct, circulatory


        “Pertaining To” suffixes, “as in”

        -ac: cardiac, heart

        -al: renal, kidney

        -an: ovarian, ovary

        -ar: lumbar, lower back 

        -are: alimentary, GI track

        -eal: laryngeal, larynx

        -ic: enteric, intestines

        -ous: skin

        -tic: nephrotic, kidneys

        -prandial: a meal


        Suffixes:

        -algia: pain

        -ase: enzyme ending

        -blast: immature stage in cellular development before appearance of definitive characteristics of the cell;

        -centesis: surgical puncture to remove fluid or gas

        -cyte: cell -dynia: pain

        -ectasis: distending, stretching

        -ectomy: surgical procedure to remove organ

        -emia: blood condition

        -gram: record of

        -graph: recording instrument

        -graphy: written, studied about, recording procedure

        -iasis: parasite infestation; name preceeds suffix, e.g., trichomoniasis

        -itis: inflammation

        -lith: body or mass

        -lithiasis: presence of stones

        -lysis: break down, loosen, decomposition

        -logy: study of

        -malacia: abnormal softening

        -megaly: enlargement

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          -mycin: substance derived from bacteria

          -oma: tumor, neoplasm, or specific tissue which precedes suffix, e.g., lipomas, fatty tumor

          -ometry: measurement

          -osis:/otic: increased number, abnormal actions, conditions or states, disorders

          -osis: disease caused by organism whose name precedes it, e.g., salmonellosis

          -pathy: disease or condition of

          -penia: deficiency, reduced number

          -pexy: suture to stabilize, e.g., gastropexy: suture to abdominal wall

          -philia: attraction for, increased numbers

          -plasia: formation, development, growth of tissue and cell numbers; change is size or tissue and cells; describes problems with tissue formation

          -plasty: surgical repairs, e.g., rhinoplasty, repair of nose

          -poietic/poiesis: formation

          -ptosis: drooping, dropping down, e.g., prolapsis

          -rrhage/rrhagia: bursting forth

          -rrhaphy: to suture

          -rrhea: flow, discharge

          -rrhexis: rupture

          -sclerosis: abnormal hardening

          -scope: procedure to visually examine

          -stomy: incision, cut into

          -thymia: condition of the mind

          -trophy: formation, development, increase in size of tissue

          -tropic: having an affinity for or attraction to

          -um: structure

          -uro,-uria: of urinary tract, urine’


          NEED A VET?
          USA:
          Find Your Local Avian Veterinarian

          by Jeannine Miesle, MA Allied Member, Association of Avian Veterinarians


          Index of Bird DiseasesSymptoms and Potential CausesBird Species and Diseases They are Most Susceptible to

          Avian (Bird) Anatomy – Images of Bird Skeletal System by Jeannine

           

          Internal Anatomy of a long bone with trabiculae, medullary bone

          Main Article: Avian Medical Terms / Health & Diseases by Jeannine Miesle, MA, Allied Member, Association of Avian Veterinarians …

          Avian Anatomy Image Gallery (NOTE: Some of the images / illustrations on this and linked pages may be too graphic for young audiences. We recommend parental supervision and approval.)


          SKELETAL SYSTEM

          Long bone anatomy https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-ap/chapter/introduction-to-bone/

          Long bone anatomy

          Long bone anatomy

          Metaphysis https://fairviewmnhs.org/Patient-Education/Articles/English/p/e/d/i/a/Pediatric_Skeletal_Growth_89080

          and

          https://drawittoknowit.com/course/gross-anatomy/glossary/gross-anatomic-microscopic-structure/bone-anatomy

          Metaphysis / Long Bone Anatomy

          Network of trabiculae Internal Anatomy of a long bone with trabiculae, medullary bone https://humanbiology.pressbooks.tru.ca/chapter/13-4-structure-of-bone/

          Internal Anatomy of a long bone with trabiculae, medullary bone

          Skeleton of a bird https://veteriankey.com/basic-avian-anatomy-and-physiology/

          Bird Skeleton

           

          Bones of the Wing and Shoulder https://www.pinterest.com/pin/503277327093711879/ and https://www.pinterest.com/pin/155303887213987672

          Wing AnatomyWing and shoulder anatomy

           

          Furcula, Top arrow; Keel bone, bottom arrow https://slideplayer.com/slide/9208738/

          Furcula, Top arrow; Keel bone, bottom arrow

          Coracoid Bone http://vireo.ansp.org/bird_academy/bird_glossary.html

          Coracoid Bone

          Synsacrum http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/skeleton.html

          Synsacrum

          Thoracic vertebrae or notarium  https://birdsofseabrook.app.clemson.edu/topics/skeleton.html

          Thoracic vertebrae or notarium

          Parrot / Bird Leg and Foot anatomy By Darekk2 – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=30700010

          Bird Leg

          Bird Wing: Alula, phalanges, metacarpals https://www.researchgate.net/ 

          Bird Wing: Alula, phalanges, metacarpals

           

          ALULA BONES featheredphotography.com/blog/2013/03/23/the-alula-bastard-wing-of-a-kestrel-in-flight/

          ALULA BONESWing Bone

          Cross-section of a hollow (pneumatic) bird bone showing trabiculae http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=bird+bones&view=detailv2&&&id=91B06AEE2221B40D551E5A4041A 227A014E3973F&selectedIndex=15&ccid=E4G0jcob&simid=607992470008564468&thid=JN.617wTVIMlXkNb wGSNBbw0Q&ajaxhist=0

          Cross-section of a hollow (pneumatic) bird bone showing trabiculae

          Humerus and femur—long bones which are filled with air http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=bird+wing+bones+Lafebervet.com&view=detailv2&&&id=715D34A6FE 156158ADE844225CF340031C18DBB9&selectedIndex=596&ccid=9Hr8ndae&simid=608035411092899959&t hid=JN.ys86xutpyZTflZGguXXrWg&ajaxhist=0

          Humerus and femur—long bones which are filled with air

          Keel bone http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=bird+keel+bone&view=detailv2&&&id=BD09F2AD14BA4565A5D117D2F577D202 31C051D6&selectedIndex=137&ccid=bFqQUfvD&simid=608018458822184003&thid=HN.608018458822184003

          Keel Bone

          Bone Condyles on human knee http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=condyle&view=detailv2&&&id=70682F4759035E7A7E0537B11673231 F801A44EF&selectedIndex=59&ccid=XjCqX3Tn&simid=608040861387195128&thid=JN.HB9j0VqWpn+Apr/fd cVtkg

          Bone Condyles on human knee

          Fracture types http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=bird+glottis&view=detailv2&&&id=19F36453DEA8572015FDD0ED95C 7EAEC41AE09CD&selectedIndex=0&ccid=ogpWS2Ug&simid=608004298336109970&thid=JN.DAtJUsry08c% 2fjgBQEtA7%2fw&ajaxhist=0

          Fracture types

          ExostosisExostosis http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=exostosis&view=detailv2&&&id=48DF5CE376D8189A333F53F3AA297A950FA16 19C&selectedIndex=2&ccid=Wt0Ku6py&simid=607997812942834644&thid=JN.qKywVta8Hcw9rdqU4on3Rg&ajaxhist=0

          Involucrum in bone http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=involucrum&view=detailv2&&qpvt=involucrum&id=4741E54CC1CFE06 448E9E33A49BC6A6C6FF91F53&selectedIndex=1&ccid=Mbh3WhMe&simid=607988591657748536&thid=JN .fiakvC375hG34%2fU1M7kINw&ajaxhist=0

          Involucrum in bone

          Zygodactyl foot numbering and Hallux toe http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=zygodactyl+bird+feet&view=detailv2&&&id=8B485B4B625C74DC5D17990450BC 3C6062611170&selectedIndex=0&ccid=KKOk2N3z&simid=608021873345956061&thid=JN.xQoKMos3%2fS3D043UUz% 2blkw&ajaxhist=0 1 is the Hallux toe

          Zygodactyl foot numbering and Hallux toe

           

          Avian (Bird) Anatomy – Images of Cloaca and Bursa of Fabricus

           

          Cloacal prolapse

          Main Article: Avian Medical Terms / Health & Diseases by Jeannine Miesle, MA, Allied Member, Association of Avian Veterinarians …

          Avian Anatomy Image Gallery (NOTE: Some of the images / illustrations on this and linked pages may be too graphic for young audiences. We recommend parental supervision and approval.)


          CLOACA AND BURSA OF FABRICUS

          Compartments of the cloaca From Manual of Ornithology, Porter and Lynch

          Compartments of the Cloaca

          Bursa of Fabricus http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=bursa+of+fabricius&view=detailv2&&qpvt=bursa+of+fabricius&id=8CA6 A086DF1DD9D20845068B4977CF86D213FF2C&selectedIndex=4&ccid=UUSbFbP0&simid=60799124163664 4044&thid=JN.BU2QCMn5ANSNr5DdhgoT1g&ajaxhist=0

          Bursa of Fabricus

          Cloacal prolapse http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=cloaca+in+birds&view=detailv2&&&id=06A71A5940A86522809F57674 CB6316EEC97532E&selectedIndex=0&ccid=t/Fh3NfN&simid=608019408007463541&thid=HN.60801940800

          Cloacal prolapse

          Cloacal papilloma http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=bird+glottis&view=detailv2&&&id=19F36453DEA8572015FDD0ED95C 7EAEC41AE09CD&selectedIndex=0&ccid=ogpWS2Ug&simid=608004298336109970&thid=JN.DAtJUsry08c% 2fjgBQEtA7%2fw&ajaxhist=0

          Cloacal papilloma

           

          Avian (Bird) Anatomy – Images of Cells, Genetics and DNA by Jeannine

           

          Cell structure and mitochondria

          Main Article: Avian Medical Terms / Health & Diseases by Jeannine Miesle, MA, Allied Member, Association of Avian Veterinarians …

          Avian Anatomy Image Gallery (NOTE: Some of the images / illustrations on this and linked pages may be too graphic for young audiences. We recommend parental supervision and approval.)


          Cells, Genetics & DNA

          Apoptosis http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=apoptosis&view=detailv2&&qpvt=apoptosis&id=87DD6D34BBDD0E10 4CDD77C8998C91A5B5229CF2&selectedIndex=12&ccid=01p%2flKkF&simid=608035728922906593&thid=J N.YtSu9Vh%2fPnM8GFT31ZI7pg&ajaxhist=0

          Apoptosis definition, cell apoptosis pathway, steps ...

          Difference between apoptosis and necrosis http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=apoptosis&view=detailv2&&&id=A9A1C49CA87AA1F93B434602D093 5421FB0C53EE&selectedIndex=111&ccid=7UoD0jTW&simid=608035578594593976&thid=JN.P9LqD39CSqg ZSCvV3cIxgA&ajaxhist=0 85

          Difference between apoptosis and necrosis

          Cell structure and mitochondria http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=mitochondria+diagram&view=detailv2&&&id=D8C8767F423E6634DA1BFCEB311 8C96A6F38DCAE&selectedIndex=54&ccid=GMf4v0Ov&simid=608004757919108313&thid=JN.sBGxVCEMe3oOmSEy16 Kp7A&ajaxhist=0

          Cell structure and mitochondria

          Mast Cells and allergy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mast_cell#/media/File:Mast_cells.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mast_cell

          Mast Cells and allergy

           


           

          Avian (Bird) Anatomy – Images of Bird Glands by Jeannine Miesle

           

          Salt glands in a water bird

          Main Article: Avian Medical Terms / Health & Diseases by Jeannine Miesle, MA, Allied Member, Association of Avian Veterinarians …

          Avian Anatomy Image Gallery (NOTE: Some of the images / illustrations on this and linked pages may be too graphic for young audiences. We recommend parental supervision and approval.)


          GLANDS

          Uropygial gland

          http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=uropygial+gland&view=detailv2&&&id=AF0995C88492FF77F9B47965 0D9D5BEA2A77DCC3&selectedIndex=31&ccid=syWYFrYT&simid=608037897862316118&thid=JN.9%2fMG4 %2fxSTJ8qdMi0F96CSg&ajaxhist=0

          Uropygial gland

          Cockatiel uropygial gland. (Miesle)

          Cockatiel uropygial gland. (Miesle)

          Salt glands in a water bird http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=lymph+nodes+in+birds&view=detailv2&&&id=C82CB6EF3224022ACAB74597FC DC70D21106BAC1&selectedIndex=10&ccid=mR9Xfcfr&simid=608052092744174147&thid=JN.gMK%2fx8gj15QF0GyH5 6083w&ajaxhist=0 92

          Salt glands in a water bird

          Salt glands and ducts http://bio1151b.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch44/44_07BirdSaltExcretGlands.jpg

          Salt glands and ducts http://bio1151b.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch44/44_07BirdSaltExcretGlands.jpg
          Photo of author

          Jeannine Miesle

          Jeannine Miesle, M.A., M.Ed, Allied Member, Association of Avian Veterinarians is an important contributor to Beauty of Birds. Jeannine has done considerable writing, proofreading and editing for journals and newsletters over the years. She had taught English and music in the schools and presently is an organist at Bethany Church in West Chester, Ohio. She also administrates a Facebook group, The Science of Avian Health.

          Jeannine takes in rescued cockatiels and presently has twelve birds. When they come to her they remain as part of her flock.