Spix’s Macaws: References & Recommended Readings

Spix’s Macaw Information

Macaw InformationPhotos of the Different Macaw Species for Identification

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    Spix’s Macaw Main Species Information Page (Overview, Captive Populations, Conservation Programs, Global Names, The mystery of the last wild Spix’s Macaw, Distribution / Range, Habitat, Description, Behavior, Communications / Vocalizations, Diet / Feeding, Breeding / Nesting, Lifespan)

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      Historic Background of the Spix’s Macaw

      Threats, Conservation Programs, Status

      Spix Macaws in Aviculture


      References & Recommended Readings

      Juniper, T (2002): Spix’s Macaw – Race to Save the World’s Rarest Bird, Harper Collins, London, UK (a book written about Spix’s Macaw — which is the most extensive resource on the Spix’s Macaw) The book is available over Amazon — but pdf formats are also available over Googles Books. It is very well written and very captivating.

      Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), Qatar, Persian Gulf, Middle East (the most successful captive breeding program in the world)

      Roth, P.G. (1990): Spix-Ara Cyanopsitta spixii: was wissen wir heute über diese seltenen Vögel? Bericht über ein 1985-1988 durchgeführtes Projekt. Papageien 3/90: 86-88, 4/90: 121-125.

      Barros, Y. M. (2001): Biologia Comportamental de Propyrrhura maracana (Aves Psittacidae): Fundamentos para conservação in situ de Cyanopsitta spixii (Aves – Psittacidae) na caatinga. Tese de doutorado. Universidade Estadual Paulista. Rio Claro – SP.

      Bruford MW, Hanotte O, Brookfield JFY, Burke T (1992) Single-locus and multilocus DNA fingerprinting. In: Molecular  Genetic  Analysis of Populations A Practical Approach (ed. Hoelzel AR), pp. 225–269. Oxford University Press, New York.

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        Spix's Macaw

        Grant PR, Grant BR (1992) Hybridization of bird species. Science,  256, 193–197.

        Da-Ré, M. (1994): Projeto Ararinha Azul. Relatório não publicado e proposta para o CPRAA, submetida entre setembro e dezembro 1994; draft.

        Griffiths R, Double MC, Orr K, Dawson RJG (1998) A simple DNA test to sex most birds. Mol. Ecol., 7, 1071.

        Griffiths R, Tiwari B (1995) Sex of the last wild Spix’s macaw.  Nature, 375, 454.

        IUCN 2004. The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

        Miyaki CY, Griffiths R, Orr K, Nahum LA, Pereira SL, Wajntal A (1998) Zoobiology, 17, 415–423.

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          Pontual, F.B. (1992)

          Roth, P.G. (1990): Spix-Ara Cyanopsitta spixii: was wissen wir heute über diese seltenen Vögel? Bericht über ein 1985-1988 durchgeführtes Projekt. Papageien 3/90: 86-88, 4/90: 121-125.

          Zhen L, Swank RT (1993) A simple and high yield method for recovering DNA from agarose gels. Bio Techniques, 14, 894– 896.

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